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These can be found by contacting your local hospital library. It may have some of the articles in stock, or it can order them for you (there is usually a charge for this). Some journals are also available online, so this may be another option. Thanks to everyone who keeps us updated on new articles.

Albert H, Godskesen M, Westergaard J, Chard T, Gunn L (1997) Circulating levels of relaxin in pregnant women with pelvic pain. Eur J Obs and Gynae and Reprod Biolo 74:19-22

Albert H, Godskesen M, Westergaad J (2000) Evaluation of clinical tests used in classification procedures in pregnancy-related pelvic joint pain. Eur J Spine 9:161-166

Albert H, Godskesen M, Westergaad J (2001) Prognosis in four syndromes of pregnancy-related pelvic pain. Acta Obstet Gynaecol Scand 80:505-510

Berg G, Hammar M, Moller-Nielsen J, Linden U, Thorblad J. Low back pain during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1988; 71(1):71-75

Bjorklund K, Lindgren PG, Bergstrom S, Ulmsten U. Sonographic assessment of symphyseal joint distention intra partum. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1997; 76(3):227-232

Bjorklaund K, Nordstrom M, Bergstrom S (1999) Sonographic assessment of symphyseal joint distension during pregnancy and post partum with special reference to pelvic pain. Acta Obstet Gynaecol Scand 78:125-130

Bjorklund K, Nordstrom M, Odlind V (2000) Combined oral contraceptives do not increase the risk of back and pelvic pain during pregnancy or after deliver. Acta Obstet Gynaecol Scand 79:979-983

Bjorklund K, Nordstrom M, Ulmsten U (2000) Symphyseal distension in relation to serum relaxin levels and pelvic pain in pregnancy. Obstet Gynaecol Scand 79:269-275

Brynhildsen J, Hansson A, Persson A, Hammar M (1998) Follow up of patients with low back pain during pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology 91(2):182-186

Buyruk H, Stam H, Snijders C, Lameris J, Holland W, Stijnen T (1999) Measurement of sacroiliac joint stiffness in pelvic pain patients with Doppler imaging of vibrations (DIV). Eur J Obst Gynec Repr Biol 83:159-163

Cappiello GA, Oliver BC. Rupture of symphysis pubis caused by forceful and excessive abduction of the thighs with labor epidural anesthesia. J FlaMed Assoc 1995; 82(4):261-263

Cholewicki J, Juluru K, Radebold A, Panjabi MM, McGill SM. Lumbar spine stability can be augmented with an abdominal belt and/or increased intra-abdominal pressure. Eur Spine J 1999; 8(5):388-395

Coldron Y. "Mind the Gap" - Symphysis pubis dysfunction revisited. Journal of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Women's Health 2005; 96(Spring):3-15

Dalstra M and Huiskes (1995) Load transfer across the pelvic bone. J Biomechanics 28(6):715-724

Daly JM, Frame PS, Rapoza PA. Sacroiliac subluxation: a common, treatable cause of low-back pain in pregnancy. Fam Pract Res J 1991; 11(2):149-159

Damen L, Spoor C, Snijders C, Stam H (2002) Does a pelvic belt influence sacroiliac joint stability? Clinical Biomechanics 17:495-498

Damen L, Buyruk H, Guler-Uysal F, Lotgering F, Snijders C, Stam H (2001) Pelvic pain during pregnancy is associated with asymmetrical laxity of the sacroiliac joint. Obstet Gynaecol Scand 80:1019-1024

Dhar S and Anderton J (1992) Rupture of the symphysis pubis during labour. Clin Orth Rel Res 283:252-257

Don Tigny R (1995) Function of the lumbosacral complex as a self compensating force couple with a variable, force dependent transverse axis: a theoretical analysis Proceedings of the 2nd interdisciplinary world congress on low back pain. 501-529

Elden H, Ladfors L, Olsen MF, Ostgaard HC, Hagberg H. Effects of acupuncture and stabilising exercises as adjunct to standard treatment in pregnant women with pelvic girdle pain: randomised single blind controlled trial. BMJ 2005; 330(7494):761

Elphinston J (2001) Get on the ball – lecture notes.

Fast A, Shapiro D, Ducommun EJ, Friedmann LW, Bouklas T, Floman Y. Low-back pain in pregnancy. Spine 1987; 12(4):368-371.

Fischer R (2003) Lumbopelvic stability and low back pain: Current thoughts and exercise guidelines. Sportex medicine 17(3):10-13

Fry D (1999) Perinatal symphysis pubis dysfunction: a review of the literature. J ACPWH 85:11-18

Gamble J, Simmons S, Freedman M (1986) The symphysis pubis – anatomical and pathological considerations. Clin Orth Rel Res 203:261-270

Gherman RB, Ouzounian JG, Incerpi MH, Goodwin TM. Symphyseal separation and transient femoral neuropathy associated with the McRoberts' maneuver. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998; 178(3):609-610

Gifford L (2005) The clinical biology of aches and pains: 7th edition Course notes ‘achesandpainsonline.com’.

Guerreiro da Silva JB, Nakamura MU, Cordeiro JA, Kulay L, Jr. Acupuncture for low back pain in pregnancy--a prospective, quasi-randomised, controlled study. Acupunct Med 2004; 22(2):60-67

Gutke A, Ostgaard HC, Oberg B. Pelvic girdle pain and lumbar pain in pregnancy: a cohort study of the consequences in terms of health and functioning. Spine 2006; 31(5):E149-E155

Hansen A, Jenson D, Larsen E, Wilken-Jensen C, Peterson L (1996) Relaxin is not related to symptom giving pelvic girdle relaxation in pregnant women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 75:245-249

Hansen A, Jenson D, Wormslev M, Minck H, Johansen S, Larsen E, Wilken-Jensen C, Davidson M, Hansen T (1999) Symptom giving pelvic girdle relaxation in pregnancy II: Symptoms and clinical signs. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 78:111-115

Heath T, Gherman RB. Symphyseal separation, sacroiliac joint dislocation and transient lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy associated with McRoberts' maneuver. A case report 1999. J Reprod Med 1999; 44(10):902-904

Jain S, Eedarapalli P, Jamjute P, Sawdy R. Symphysis pubis dysfunction: a practical approach to management. The Obstetrician and Gynaecologist 2006; 8:153-158

Kharrazi FD, Rodgers WB, Kennedy JG, Lhowe DW. Parturition-induced pelvic dislocation: a report of four cases. J Orthop Trauma 1997; 11(4):277-281

Kristiansson P, Svardsudd K, von Schoultz B (1996) Serum relaxin, symphyseal pain, and back pain during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 175:1342-7

Kristiansson P, Svardsudd K, von Schoultz B (1999) Reproductive hormones and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen in serum as early markers of pelvic pain during late pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 180(1):128-133

Larsen E, Wilken-Jensen C, Hansen A, Jensen D, Johansen S, Minck H, Wormslev M, Davidson M, Hansen T (1999) Symptom giving pelvic girdle relaxation in pregnancy Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 78:105-110

Lee D (1996) Instability of the sacroiliac joint and the consequences to gait. J Manual manipulative therapy 4:32-39

Lindsey RW, Leggon RE, Wright DG, Nolasco DR. Separation of the symphysis pubis in association with childbearing. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1988; 70(2):289-292

Lund I, Lundeberg T, Lonnberg L, Svensson E. Decrease of pregnant women's pelvic pain after acupuncture: a randomized controlled single-blind study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2006; 85(1):12-19

MacLennon A, Nicolson R, Green R, Bash M (1986) Serum relaxin and pelvic pain in pregnancy. Lancet ii:243-244

McIntosh J (1993) Incidence of separated symphysis pubis. Midwives Chronicles and nursing notes Jan:23-24

McIntosh J (1998) Focus groups. J ACPWH 82:13-16

Mantle MJ, Greenwood RM, Currey HL. Backache in pregnancy. Rheumatol Rehabil 1977; 16(2):95-101

Mens J, Snijders C, Stam H (2000) Diagonal trunk muscle exercises in peripartum pelvic pain. A randomised clinical trial. Phys Ther 80: 1164-1173

Mens J, Vleeming A, Snijders C, Koes B, Stam H (2001) Reliability and validity of the active straight leg raise test in posterior pelvic pain since pregnancy. Spine 26(10):1167-1171

Mens JM, Damen L, Snijders CJ, Stam HJ. The mechanical effect of a pelvic belt in patients with pregnancy-related pelvic pain. Clin Biomech (Bristol , Avon ) 2006; 21(2):122-127

Mogren IM, Pohjanen AI. Low back pain and pelvic pain during pregnancy: prevalence and risk factors. Spine 2005; 30(8):983-991

Mogren IM. BMI, pain and hyper-mobility are determinants of long-term outcome for women with low back pain and pelvic pain during pregnancy. Eur Spine J 2006:1-10

Mottram S (2002) lecture notes – Dynamic stability and muscle balance of the lower quadrant. Kinetic Control Ltd

Ostgaard HC, Andersson GB, Karlsson K. Prevalence of back pain in pregnancy. Spine 1991; 16(5):549-552

Ostgaard HC, Andersson GB. Previous back pain and risk of developing back pain in a future pregnancy. Spine 1991; 16(4):432-436

Ostgaard HC, Roos-Hansson E, Zetherstrom G. Regression of back and posterior pelvic pain after pregnancy. Spine 1996; 21(23):2777-2780

Ostgaard H (1997) Point of view Spine 22(16)1884

Owens K, Pearson A, Mason G (2002) Symphysis pubis dysfunction – a cause of significant obstetric morbidity. Eur J Obst Gynec Repr Biol 105:143-146

Panjabi M (1992) The stabilising system of the spine. Part II. Neutral zone and instability hypothesis. J Spinal Disorders 5(4): 390-397

Papadopoulos C, Harding V. Chronic pain, pregnancy and child rearing. In: Gifford L, editor. Topical Issues in Pain 2. Falmouth: CNS Press, 2000: 187-195

Peterson L, Hvidman L, Uldberg N (1995) Normal serum relaxin in women with disabling pelvic pain during pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest 38:21-23

Pool-Goudzwaard AL, Slieker ten Hove MC, Vierhout ME, Mulder PH, Pool JJ, Snijders CJ et al. Relations between pregnancy-related low back pain, pelvic floor activity and pelvic floor dysfunction. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005; 16(6):468-474

Pool-Goudzwaard AL, Vleeming A, Stoeckart R, Snijders CJ, Mens JM. Insufficient lumbopelvic stability: a clinical, anatomical and biomechanical approach to 'a-specific' low back pain. Man Ther 1998; 3(1):12-20

Scriven M, Jones D, McKight L (1995) The importance of pubic pain following childbirth: a clinical and ultrasonic study of diastasis of the pubic symphysis. J R Soc Med 88:28-30

Shepherd J and Fry D (1996) Symphysis Pubis Pain. Midwives 109(1302):199-201

Shepherd J. Symphysis pubis dysfunction: a hidden cause of morbidity. British Journal of Midwifery 2005; 13(5):301-307

Sihvonen T, Huttunen M, Makkonen M, Airaksinen O. Functional changes in back muscle activity correlate with pain intensity and prediction of low back pain during pregnancy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998; 79(10):1210-1212

Stuge B, Hilde G, Vollstad N (2003) Physical therapy for pregnancy related low back and pelvic pain: a systematic review. Acta Obs Gynea Scan 82(11): 983

Stuge B, Laerum E, Kirkesola G, Vollestad N (2004) The efficacy of a treatment program focusing on specific stabilising exercises for pelvic girdle pain after pregnancy. Spine 29(4):351-359

Stuge B, Veierod M, Laerum E, Vollestad N (2004) The efficacy of a treatment program focusing on specific stabilising exercises for pelvic girdle pain after pregnancy: a 2-year follow-up of a randomised control trial. Spine 29(10):197-203

Stuge B, Laerum E, Kirkesola G, Vollestad N. The efficacy of a treatment program focusing on specific stabilising exercises for pelvic girdle pain after pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. Spine 2004; 29(4):351-359

Sturesson B, Selvik G, Uden A. Movements of the sacroiliac joints. A roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis. Spine 1989; 14(2):162-165

Sturesson B, Uden G, Uden A (1997) Pain pattern in pregnancy and ‘catching’ of the leg in pregnant women with posterior pelvic pain. Spine 22(16):1880-1884

Sturesson B, Uden A, Vleeming A (2000) A radiostereometric analysis of the movement of the sacroiliac joint in the reciprocal straddle position. Spine 25(2): 214-217

Sylvester M (2000) Lecture notes – Dynamic stability and muscle balance of the lumbar spine and pelvis. Kinetic Control Ltd

Ternov NK, Grennert L, Aberg A, Algotsson L, Akeson J. Acupuncture for lower back and pelvic pain in late pregnancy: a retrospective report on 167 consecutive cases. Pain Med 2001; 2(3):204-207

Van der Wurff P, Meyne W, Hagmeijer R (2000) Clinical tests of the sacroiliac joint: A Systematic methodological review. Part 2: Validity Manual. Therapy 5(2):89-96

Vleeming A, Stoeckart R, Volkers A, Snijders C (1990) The relationship between form and function in the sacroiliac joint. Part I: Clinical anatomical aspects. Spine 15(2):130-132

Vleeming A, Stoeckart R, Volkers A, Snijders C (1990) The relationship between form and function in the sacroiliac joint. Part II: Biomechanical aspects. Spine 15(2):132-135

Vleeming A, Snijders C, Stoeckart R, Mens J (1997) The role of the sacroiliac joint in coupling between spine, pelvis, legs and arms, in Vleeming A, Mooney V, Dorman T, Snijders C, Stoeckart R (eds) ‘Movement, stability and low back pain’ Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh. Chap 3:53-73

Vleeming A, De Vries H, Mens J, Van Wingerden P (2002) Possible role for the long dorsal sacroiliac ligament in women with peripartum pelvic pain. Acta Obs Gynae Scan 81(5):430-436

Vleeming A, Albert H, Ostgaard HC, Stuge B, Sturesson B. European guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of pelvic girdle pain. European Commission, Research Directorate-General, Department of Policy, Coordination and Strategy 2004

Vleeming A, Buyruk HM, Stoeckart R, Karamursel S, Snijders CJ. An integrated therapy for peripartum pelvic instability: a study of the biomechanical effects of pelvic belts. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992; 166(4):1243-1247

Wainwright M, Fishburn S, Tudor-Williams N, Naoum H, Garner V. Symphysis Pubis Dysfunction: improving the service. British Journal of Midwifery 2003; 11(11): 664-667

Watkins Y (1997) Current concept in dynamic stabilisation of the spine and pelvis: their relevance in obstetrics. J Chart Phys Women Health 83:16-26

Wu WH, Meijer OG, Uegaki K, Mens JM, Van Dieen JH, Wuisman PI et al. Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PPGP), I: Terminology, clinical presentation, and prevalence. Eur Spine J 2004 13:575-589

Young G, Jewell D. Interventions for preventing and treating pelvic and back pain in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;(1):CD001139

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